Pablo Picasso, Garçon à la pipe, 1905

Pablo Picasso, Garçon à la pipe, 1905

"The anguish of the neurotic individual is the same as that of the saint. The neurotic, the saint are engaged in the same battle. Their blood flows from similar wounds. But the first one gasps and the other one gives." — Georges Bataille

After learning more about neuroticism today, I believe I'm someone who scores high on neuroticism.

In an effort to learn more about this condition, and how to cope with it, I'm reading a few articles and taking some notes as I go.

what it is

  • a personality trait, not a mental health condition
  • prone to easily aroused, sometimes uncontrollable, negative emotions that don't interfere with daily function
  • one of the "Big Five" personality traits in psychological development theory, originally outlined in 1949 by D.W. Fiske


  • Do you suffer from "nerves"?
  • Do you worry too long after an embarrassing experience?
  • Are your feelings easily hurt?
  • Are you often troubled by feelings of guilt?
  • Are you an irritable person?


  • a natural inclination for negative emotions (anger, anxiety, sadness, depression, self-doubt, jealousy, etc.)
  • easy emotional stimulation
  • persistent worrying or ruminating
  • finding it challenging to manage emotions in the moment
  • experiencing major shifts in emotions
  • feeling unable to cope with or overcome challenges
  • regular tendency to have excessive reactions to minor scenarios
  • persistent worrying


  • greater creativity: a neurotic's worries comes from an overactive imagination, like a cinema screen in your head playing different possibilities, allowing you to consider different choices and actions.
    • at worst, this contributes to unhappy rumination, but also deeper thinking and more original ideas. this is an advantage compared with someone who never thinks about problems
    • ex: Isaac Newton, known to have be melancholic and ruminative, he would repeatedly brood over the scientific questions that were troubling him and eventually crack them months or years later


  • reframe "negative" -> "difficult"
  • develop emotional granularity: learn how to describe your emotional state with complexity, it helps you clearly behold an emotion and suggests an action
  • seek adventure: develop a discipline fo risk-taking, forcing yourself to do things you wouldn't do and make that a regular part of your life. "The opposite of anxiety is exploration"
  • put it into words
  • self-distancing: looking at a problem from an outside perspective, imagine you are advising a friend who is facing the same issue.
  • acceptance and reappraisal: look at your worries and anxieties dispassionately. question whether your thoughts have good factual basis, conveys useful information that you can act on, and whether there could be a more positive interpretation of an event.



How To Increase Agency (Flowchart)

Emmett Shear tweeted that agency is 100% teachable. "It's a mindset but it's also just a set of skills"

Josh made a flowchart with certain questions that helps generate agency in any problem.

You Have a Problem: Are You Working on It?

  • No: Are you in a victim mindset?
    • Yes: Can you answer these questions?
      • What if it were possible?
      • What’s the stupidest, easiest thing you could do to make even a little bit of progress?
      • Why are you so sure you won’t succeed?
    • No: Can you answer these questions?
      • (now) What are you doing right now?
      • (goal) What is a detailed description of the world after you’ve succeeded? What does success look like? What are you actually trying to do? In 12 months, what would you like to be celebrating with a friend?
      • (why) Why do you want to do that?
      • (problem) What is the roadblock? What is the problem in detail? What might make you procrastinate?
      • (solutions) What are some ideas that could possibly work?
      • (plan) Given the best, easiest, or most liked idea, what’s your rough draft of a plan?
      • (next step) What’s the immediate next step?
      • (help) Who or what could help fill in the gaps?
      • (environment) How could you set up your social context and environment to:
        • bolster your motivation, and
        • avoid frustrations and temptations?
  • Yes: Can you answer these questions?
    • What is a detailed description of the world after you’ve succeeded?
    • What’s the connection between what you’re doing now, your plan, and the goal?


  • People tend to:
    • underestimate the likelihood of success for “bad” plans that could work.
    • overestimate the likelihood of success for sure-thing plans (day-to-day is usually more chaotic than we expect).

Free yourself from the requirement that your ideas must be good. All that matters is that they’re possible. It could work.

source: docs link


26 Time Management Hacks

Clock and Telephone, Rufino Tamayo, 1925

Clock and Telephone, Rufino Tamayo, 1925

from Etienne Garbugli: 26 Time Management Hacks I Wish I'd Known at 20

  • Only plan for 4-5 hours of real work per day
  • It's normal to have days where you just can't work and days where you'll work 12 hours straight
    • work more when you're in the zone. Relax when you're not.
  • Your time is $1000/hour, respect your time and act accordingly
  • Stop multi-tasking, it only kills your focus
  • Set up a work routine and stick to it, your body will adapt
  • Time block: You're more focused and productive with limited time
  • Work is the best way to get working. Start with short and small tasks.
  • Work iteratively. don't expect to do things perfectly

    "Doing is better than perfect" – Facebook motto

  • More work hours != more productivity.
  • Separate brainless and strategic tasks

    "Separate thinking and execution to execute faster and think better" – Sol Tanguay

  • Put important meetings early in the day so you can focus on other work after
  • Group meetings and communication (email or phone) to create blocks of uninterrupted work
  • Avoid context switching: keep the same context throughout the day.
  • Work around procrastination. Procrastinate between sprints of work (Pomodoro)
  • break things down

    Break the unreasonable down into little reasonable chunks. A big goal is only achieved when every little thing that you do everyday, gets you closer to that goal – Maren Kate, Escaping the 9 to 5

  • Always prioritize: No 2 task holds the same importance. sort/group your to-do list by importance
  • Always know the one thing you need to get done during the day that has the biggest impact
  • Break tasks into hour increments. Long tasks are hard to get into.
  • Delegate and learn to make use of other people.

    "If something can be done 80% as well by someone else, delegate!" – John C. Maxwell

  • Only think about today and tomorrow.

    "Yesterday's home runs don't win today's games" – Babe Ruth

  • Set deadlines for everything. Don't let tasks run indefinitely.
  • Set end dates for intense or stressful activities
  • Always take notes and set reminders. Your brain is fallible and your memory cannot be trusted
  • Write down anything that distracts you – random thoughts, new ideas, emotions. Once you write them down, they'll stop bothering you when you try to focus
  • Take breaks. Sometimes.

Don't Follow Your Dreams

Grant Sanderson, aka 3blue1brown, a mathematician and programmer who makes beautiful animated math videos, talks about what "Follow Your Dreams" misses, and some advice in his commencement speech at Harvey Mudd.

  • focus on adding value
    • "Success hinges on how effectively you're able to add value to others."
  • action precedes motivation
    • engage in activities and just do things even if you don't feel motivated initially. motivation follows action.
  • adapt and be flexible
    • "Treat passion not as a destination, but as a fuel, following not dreams, but opportunities."
    • be prepared to change directions based on new opportunities
  • seize current opportunities
    • "Ask yourself what's possible now that wasn't possible ten years ago, and which might get harder ten years from now."
    • identify and act on emerging opportunities that are less crowded
  • influence and encourage others
    • "Never underestimate just how much influence you can have on others, especially the ones who are younger than you are."
    • recognize the impact you can have on others, small acts of encouragement can significantly shape their paths (see Pygmalion effect)
  • think beyond yourself
    • pursue passions that extends beyond self-interest and focus on how they can benefit others. this makes for more meaningful success


Inversion Thinking

Ivan Aivazovsky, Ship in the Stormy Sea, 1887

Ivan Aivazovsky, Ship in the Stormy Sea, 1887

Charlie Munger famously said this about inversion

"All I want to know is where I’m going to die, so I’ll never go there."

This was inspired by German mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi who often solved difficult problems following a simple strategy:

"man muss immer umkehren" (or loosely translated, "invert, always invert.")

Inversion forces you to uncover hidden beliefs about the problems you're trying to solve.

It improves your understanding of a problem by forcing you to do the work necessary to have an opinion as you're forced to consider different perspectives.

To practice inversion, spend time thinking about the opposite of what you want, and avoid all the things that could lead to that happening. i.e. work your way backwards in any problem.

Or to put it more simply, spend less time trying to be brilliant and more time trying to avoid obvious stupidity

a few examples

  • hosting an event: how would your guests have the worst possible time
  • shipping a new feature: how will the launch fail?
  • picking up a new habit: what obstacles prevent me from ever adopting this habit?
  • learning a new skill: how will I ensure I never gain proficiency?
  • a job interview: how will I give the worst possible impression / answer to important questions?
  • happiness: how can I stay miserable?
  • anything at all: how will I fail?

Watch Charlie Munger himself explain inversion himself.


The Pygmalion Effect

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Children's Games (Bruegel), 1560

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Children's Games (Bruegel), 1560

notes on an article by fs on the Pygmalion Effect

  • "Pygmalion Effect" was coined in studies done in the 60s on the influence of teacher expectations on students' IQs
  • poses the question "if teacher's had high expectations, would they become self-fulfilling prophecies regardless of initial IQ?
  • although the conclusion is the effects were negligible, the Pygmalion Effect, expectations influencing performance, is widespread.

The way managers treat their subordinates is subtly influenced by what they expect of them. If manager's expectations are high, productivity is likely to be excellent. If their expectations are low, productivity is likely to be poor. It is as though there were a law that caused subordinates' performance to rise or fall to meet managers' expectations."

– Pygmalion in Management, J. Sterling Livingston

  • our reality is negotiable and can be manipulated by others, on purpose or by accident
  • What we achieve, how we think, how we act, and how we perceive our capabilities can be influenced by the expectations of those around us.

"The visions we offer our children shape the future. It matters what those visions are. Often they become self-fulfilling prophecies. Dreams are maps." — Carl Sagan

  • check your assumptions (especially the negative ones), actively fight against stereotypes and prejudice, they influence your behaviour and expectations of others that might affect their lives.
  • be mindful of the potential influence of our expectations
  • high expectations = inspire others to perform at their best
    • people's limitations are stretched if you change your perception of their limitations
  • if you want people around you to succeed, raise your expectations; if you expect the worst, you'll probably get it.

Roy T. Bennett said, “Great leaders can see the greatness in others when they can't see it themselves and lead them to their highest potential they don't even know” in The Light in the Heart


Summarizing is Thinking

from My favorite teacher - by Thorsten Ball - Register Spill

Anything, he taught us, can be summarized in one, two, three, four, five sentences, but you need to know what you’re talking about and think clearly. Whenever someone would fail to summarize something, he’d say: "you’re not thinking clearly."

Summarizing is thinking clearly.

I read a lot, but I don't really test my knowledge.

A good practice to adopt is that for anything that I've consumed, articles, podcasts or YT videos, summarize it in three sentences.

I'm imagining an LLM app, where for anything you read or learn online, you'll summarize your thoughts and ideas and takeaways, and the LLM will flesh out any details that are still unclear, and provide you with rabbit holes to dive into.


Intercom on Starting Up

I'm currently building an app with my friend and we want to turn it into a startup.

We're making something we want for ourselves, and we hope it's something people want to, echoing what YC says, "Don't make a startup, make something people want".

I found this book Intercom on Starting Up by Des Traynor on Twitter a few days ago, and decided to read a few pages since my internet was down at the club.

I'm focused on 3 questions out of the 9 in the book because it's more relevant for me right now as I'm building an MVP with a friend.

The questions are: what to build, how to build it, and how to find your first customer.

What will you build?

Note: This question is not one you can answer definitively. Even after releasing and getting users, you have to continue making hard decisions about what features to build next, what bugs to fix, what customer request to address.

Ask yourself the following questions before you start designing or coding

  1. Is this a real problem people want solved?
  2. Do I have experience with this problem that will help solve it?
  3. Can I build something that's magical, and is substantially better than existing products?

"Problems first, Technology second."

  • One of the biggest mistake is focusing on the technology, rather than what it will enable.
  • Jobs-to-be-Done (JTBD) framework
    • what? people don't buy your product because of their demographic, they want to hire it to do a job for them
    • All technology flops have something in common. They failed to do a job for their customers.

Innovation has two components

technological innovation and market impact

  • Breakthrough Tech = high technology progress + low market impact
  • Disruptive = high market impact + low technology progress
    • Truly disruptive products don't require a huge technological leap, they just have a much better understanding of what the jobs to be done are.
  • Game Changers = high tech + high market
    • ex: the iPhone, focused on real things people needed to do and showed how they were possible in infinitely superior ways.
    • are first movers, often fail because they don't know how to explain what they've built. make sure to clearly articulate the problems your product solves.

Anticipate but don't fetishize the future

"Any degree of success will breed complacency. Any degree of complacency will breed failure. Therefore only the paranoid survive." – Intel CEO Andy Grove

  • be acutely aware of all the different technological shifts happening, constantly ask how these things will affect you.
  • focus on the technological landscape around you and what's coming down the line
  • pay less attention to homepage of TechCrunch, and more to the changes happening in the industry you're in
  • Ask yourself: Does this tech make it cheaper, faster or easier for our customers to make progress in their lives?

Don't reinvent the wheel

  • great products can be created by tinkering and improving on existing ideas, or making unglamorous changes that don't require new tech
  • double down on what already works, and focus on the first step where you can add value.
  • if you've tried and tested ideas that work, build on them. Customers aren't paying for innovation, they're paying for a great product experience

Three ways software feels magical

great product design is about cost-benefit analysis. How much does the user have to do versus the benefit they get in return? Whenever you find a way to dramatically reduce the cost – time and money – to the user and provide a greater benefit, you're creating something magical

  1. Era of Uber-ification
    • Uber-ification = the slimming down of application interfaces into push-button experiences that do one thing. The next consumerization.
    • one tap or swipe gets you a date, food, a movie, flowers, a job, even a dog.
    • The user's context – time, location, device, previous actions – combined with behavioral analytics and user preferences, can all be combined to offer a simple way to do complex tasks.
  2. End of data entry
    • baseline: shift from recall to recognition, rather than asking users to recall and enter items, let them pick from options
    • real magic: no steps. connect to socials to find my friends, connect to email to find receipts and meetings, connect to bank to analyze transactions.
  3. Ambient awareness
    • great software relies on ambient awareness – it conveys information without you looking directly at it.
    • ask yourself "How can I ensure that every user gets value from this product, even if they forget to log in?"
    • this can be push notifications, newsletters, SMS, daily reports for users to get full value of your product.

How will you build it?

Core principles on building a product

by Paul Adams, VP of Product

  • Ruthless focus on the exact problem you're trying to solve
    • talk to customers and research their problems, perceptions, wants and needs.
    • PMs must be directly connected to customers.
  • Obsess about the smallest thing we can build that we think will solve the problem
    • think big, but scope right back to the absolute minimum.
    • this is a painful process, bu this pain means you're remaining focused
  • Ship to learn
    • shipping is only the beginning of building, ship as fast and frequently as you can
    • don't rune experiments, startups that fall back to experiments to make product decisions aren't focusing enough on the problem they're solving
    • shipping to learn = being confident that you've understood and solved the problem, but humble enough to know you'll only truly learn when it's in the hands of customers.
    • the best product people are obsessively curious after they ship something. they need to know if what they designed and built helped their customers

Guidelines for making decisions

  • many small steps > bigger launches
    • ship the smallest, simplest thing that will get you closest to your objective as fast as possible and help you learn what works.
  • daily and weekly goals
    • everyone should know what their goals are for each day, how they relate to the team's weekly goals, and how they relate to what is being released by the company.
  • optimize for face-to-face collabs
    • two people at a whiteboard = more ideas and reach consensus quicker, remote work is not for speed and efficiency of decision making.
  • fight against "work work"
    • don't use software to build software, fight anything beyond a lightweight process, use the fewest number of software tools to get the job done
  • outcome > plan
    • plans are made with limited information, but things only become fully clear as you execute
    • best teams absorb and react to new info and build great products in spite of changing circumstances.

accountability & goals

  • it must be crystal clear who is accountable for what
  • if it's design: it's on the designer (ensure they understand the research and problem being addressed)
  • if it's bugs, it's on the PM (ensure they test realistic usage and edge cases)

A culture of goal setting

  • set weekly and daily goals to stay focused and on track
  • break weekly goals into daily and sub-daily goals to reinforce the idea that every day counts and the cadence of building matters

A product roadmap

  • next 6 years
    • picture of the world in six years, and how it will evolve as you make changes
  • next 6 months
    • you should be thinking "we're making great progress"
    • about 50-70% of the things on the list might be built, the other 25% are things you hadn't thought of before
  • next 6 weeks
    • immediate plan and what your team intimately understands
    • you know exactly what's being built
    • updated every week or two

Anatomy of a product roadmap

  1. new ideas
    • based on opinion rather than research, not data-driven
    • comes from the trends and ideas you see and what excites you the most
  2. iterate recently shipped features
    • you never get it right the first time no matter how hard you try or how much research you do
    • shipping is just the beginning, iterate and make things better
    • know your success criteria (metrics) before shipping, measure post launch and follow up with customers for qualitative feedback
  3. most common customer problems
    • every week: tag every conversation with customers with a category (i.e. usability issue, feature, request, bug) and tag the team that owns that area
    • every few months, create a "hit list" of most common customer problems
    • use PMs weekly pulse and researchers' analysis to determine which problems to address first.
  4. improve quality
    • two measures for grading issues
      • how server is the problem
      • how many customers does it affect
    • fiercely commit to a high bar for speed, latency and efficiency.
  5. features to help you scale
    • never build a feature to close a deal – this signals the beginning of the end of your product
    • talk to sales team to research new customers and understand the types of features they're looking for

Three principles for shipping

  1. be comfortable knowing new features aren't perfect
    • You can't become good at something without the freedom to be bad at it first.
    • ship things that aren't "perfect", deliberately chose what not to build to accelerate production
  2. carefully define self-contained, well-scoped projects
    • self-contained = engineers can get right to building without understanding the entire codebase
    • well-scoped = able to ship something within a week
    • paint the bigger picture, break it down into lots of smaller pieces that ship bit by bit, gradually replace parts of the experience.
  3. shipping is about learning

    The quicker you can get feedback on what you're thinking, the better your idea will be. Usage is oxygen for ideas. – DES (CO-FOUNDER)

    • you can't predict how users wil behave or react. You give them a basic feature set, observe, and then iterate quickly.
    • you will be wrong more often than being right, prioritize speed to execution

How will you find your first customers?

  • Intercom planted many seeds that led up to their launch, they wrote a ton of articles that appealed to the right audience. They built their own social proof. They also went #1 on Hackernews.
  • the startup curve: any company can get a one-day bump from TechCrunch and quickly end up in the "trough of sorrow" once the novelty wears off

"we don't sell saddles here"

  • Slack CEO Stewart Butterfield's famous internal memo on clearly articulating the vision behind the product
  • ex: if you're building a new email app, people don't care about pixels or shadows or fancy sidebars, they care about the thinking behind the product: how you think about email and how those ideas are reflected in the product
  • to attract a meaningful audience, share the ideas at the core of your product as early as you can. That's what attracts the people who are interested in the ideas and purpose underpinning your product.

word of mouth

  • the most powerful way of getting customers
  • you're more likely to try an app that a friend tells you over coffee than one you see in an ad
  • it's hard to put a price on its value
  • only useful when the same words come out of lots of different mouths

great messaging

blind men and elephant analogy: when people first encounter your product, they will have different opinions of what it does and how it should be used. So it's important to have important messaging so they can easily explain your product.

  1. simple: easily understood by current and prospective customers
  2. compelling: describes something interesting or desirable to them
  3. specific: captures what your product does, not overly abstract
  4. differentiated: includes something that makes it unique
  5. defensible: not easy for competitors to copy

"If you don't have your story and messaging right, no amount of money spent on tactics like paid acquisition will work. You'll bring people to your product only to find a message that doesn't resonate. Getting your story straight is crucial to convincing them your product is going to meet their needs." – MATT (FIRST MARKETING HIRE)

Friendship Tenets

Caspar David Friedrich, Moonrise over the Sea (Mondaufgang am Meer), 1821, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

Caspar David Friedrich, Moonrise over the Sea (Mondaufgang am Meer), 1821, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

Tenets of Friendship in the friendship theory of everything by Ava

  1. You accept that in choosing who you spend time with you choose who you are.
  2. Almost everyone who’s unhappy is unhappy because they feel isolated. The best cure for isolation is a strong friend group. So much of happiness is having someone you can get a last-minute dinner with on a Monday night, or ask to water your plants while you’re gone for a week. The opposite of loneliness, as it were.
  3. You try your best to move to where your favorite people are. You do not agonize over whether this is, in fact, The Best City in the World. You do not Complain Relentlessly about Everything You Dislike About It. You simply suck it up and accept that if you like the people around you, everything else will work out.
  4. You ask your friends to live close to you, though you accept that they might not want to. You say, Let’s all stay in California together. I want my kids to grow up with your kids.
  5. When you value friendships more, they also get more fraught. I think this is what Rhaina Cohen referred to as "the problems of having community versus not having community." When we ask for more from friendship, we also get more disappointment, conflict, mismatch. There is no such thing as closeness without friction.
  6. Befriending people who are good communicators can make you a better communicator. Befriending people who are trustworthy makes you more trusting. Secure attachment can be a learned thing.
  7. People will have periods when they disappear; people have times when they let you down. When you know someone for many many years you will have so many ups and downs. As with any kind of love, the most important thing is that you both keep coming back.
  8. It’s okay to pursue and cherish romantic love, but sacrificing platonic love for it leads to disconnection and atomization.
  9. You show up: you go to your friends’ birthday parties. You ask them to read your writing. You make an effort to make nice with whoever they date.
  10. Your friends will change you, even in ways you initially reject. That’s a good thing. You will acquire new opinions and hobbies; you will find yourself into uncomfortable situations; you will learn to like the people they like.

Some more quotes from her blog that resonated

On the friends she's made in SF

My friends are all pretty anti-authoritarian, willful, dogged, and cheerful—as B said, "The type of people who believe they can fix the world’s problems through sheer force of will." I think my favorite thing about them is that they’re all very creative. In the literal sense that many of them write and make art, but also in the sense that they’re very good at solving problems in unorthodox ways.

The friends I met here were inventive, thoughtful, friendly and generous. They were nice to me without expecting anything back; they invited me to hikes, happy hours, house parties. They wanted to be helpful about work. They wanted to make the world better. At 19, they were so smart, and so impervious to irony. They were hopeful; why shouldn’t they be hopeful? They had built nuclear reactors in their basements, they had gotten perfect grades at MIT. 10 years later, my friends’ ambitions have both been realized and tempered. Many of them now either run or work happily at successful businesses; almost all of them have now lived through extreme work and personal life disappointments. They are doing what they want to do, and they have discovered that it is hard.

On meaning and work

My friends all believe that meaningful work was crucial to a good life. That was surprising to me when I first moved here. I wasn’t ambitious about work in the sense that I expected to be fulfilled; what mattered to me was survival, reassurance. Those were my parents’ values, and the values of the community I was raised in. Though I’m sure most of them were also hugely motivated by ego, validation, and financial success, I could also tell that they genuinely cared about liking what they did

people affect us a lot

"romantic relationships/best friends/therapists are critical for the same reason, where this person can become the primary person who explains you to you, the supplement to your internal monologue, and can rewire your understanding of yourself for way better or for way worse.

Friendship is a form of redemption

Like many women I’ve always loved Sex and the City, which is a show that is sometimes about sex, and sometimes about the city, but mostly about the friendship theory of everything. It’s about how it’s critical to have people in your life who love you and see you when you’re fun and sparkly and on top of the world, but also love you when you’re stagnant and petulant and self-sabotaging and letting them down. It’s about how that kind of love makes you believe in other kinds of love. It’s about how the essential texture of life is, yes, maybe a little in the shoes and a little in your apartment, but mostly about who you call to complain about a boy. And then they complain to you about their parents and then you tell them about the movie you want to see on Wednesday. It’s about how no one tells us that friendship is a form of redemption because even if work goes wrong and your boyfriend dumps you if you have people who believe you’re going to be okay you believe that you’re going to be okay.


Value of Deadlines

Vanitas, Still Life with Books and Manuscripts and a Skull, Edwaert Collier, 1663

Vanitas, Still Life with Books and Manuscripts and a Skull, Edwaert Collier, 1663

Kevin Kelly is the the co-founder of the magazine Wired. He is also an artist and author of 14 books. He also has a good newsletter called Cool Tools.

He's also popular for sharing 68 Bits of Unsolicited Advice on his 68th birthday, which turned into a book: Excellent Advice for Living: Wisdom I Wish I'd Known Earlier

He also gave 101 more advices when he turned 73 recently.

In the Knowledge Project podcast, he shares the value of deadlines:

"It took me a long time to figure out that I needed deadlines. Deadlines were the difference between a dream and something that you complete.

And what happens with deadlines is that you’ve got to ship, you have to abandon the project, and it’s not perfect. Because it’s not perfect, you kind of have to be ingenious about making it a little different.

And I find that the deadlines force me to make decisions that you don’t have enough time [for]; you never have enough time. And so you think of something to—I wouldn’t say it’s a shortcut—you think of a way to finish it, and those little decisions are what make it a little different."

And on changing someone's mind

The best way to have any hope of changing someone’s mind is to try to listen and truly understand why they think what they’re thinking and how they got there. You can’t reason someone out of a notion that they didn’t reason themselves into.


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